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The constant crisis of capitalism

 
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murat



Joined: 13 Dec 2005
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 06, 2016 7:48 pm    Post subject: The constant crisis of capitalism Reply with quote

The constant crisis of capitalism

The Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) wrote in his "prison books" from 1932 to 1934, deliberating on the development in the world

Antonio Gramsci: Journals, volume 7. Edited by Klaus Bochmann, Wolfgang Fritz Haug and Peter Jehle with the collaboration of Ruedi Graf and Gerhard Kuck. Argument Verlag, Hamburg 1996, pp. 1716-1718

We must pay particular attention to the study of the events which bear the name of the crisis and which are drawn from a catastrophe from 1929 to the present day. 1. It will be necessary to fight everyone who wants to give a single definition of these events or, what is the same, to find a single cause or a single origin. It is a process with manifold appearances, in which causes and effects become complicated and cross over. Simplifying means distorting and distorting. Thus, a complex process, as in many other phenomena, and not a single "factum", which is repeated in a number of forms by reason of a single origin. 2. When did the crisis begin? The question is related to the first. Because it is a development and not an event, the question is important. One can say that the crisis as such does not have an initial date, but only a few perceptive "manifestations", which are erroneously and tendently identified as the crisis. The fall of 1929 with the New York stock market crash is, for some, the beginning of the crisis, which is understandable among those who want to see the origin and cause of the crisis in "Americanism." But the events of the autumn of 1929 in America are just one of the most exciting phenomena of critical development, nothing else. For some, the war (the First World War, jW) itself (and not unjustly) is a manifestation of this crisis, indeed the first manifestation (...). The following three points: 1. that the crisis is a complicated process; 2. that at least war begins, even if it is not its first form; 3. that the crisis has internal origins in the modes of production and, consequently, in exchange, and not in political and juridical facts, seem to be the first three points to be clarified.

Another point is that the simple facts, that is, the fundamental contradictions of the present society, are forgotten in favor of apparently more complex (but better to say, "pointed-out") facts. One of the fundamental contradictions is the following: While economic life has the necessary preconditions for internationalism or, better, cosmopolitanism, state life has developed more and more in the sense of "nationalism", "self-sufficiency" One of the most striking features of the 'present crisis' is nothing more than the intensification of the nationalist element in economics: quotas, clearing, the restriction of foreign exchange, balanced trade between two separate states, and so on Would be the most striking fact that the "crisis" is nothing other than the quantitative amplification of certain new or original elements, but in particular the amplification of certain phenomena, while others which first appeared simultaneously with the first, which immunized them and became effective Become or have completely disappeared. In short, the development of capitalism has been a "permanent crisis," if we may say so, that is, a flashing movement of elements which balanced each other and immunized each other. At some point in this movement, some elements have won the upper hand, others have disappeared, or become unsuitable within the general framework. (...) But the basic problem is that of production and within production the imbalance between advanced industries (...) and stationary industries (where the direct labor force is very important). As there is also a stratification between advanced and stationary industries in the international arena, it is understood that the countries in which the advanced industries are abundant have felt the crisis, etc. Therefore, different deceptions, which have to do with it, That one does not understand that the world is a unit, whether one wants or not, and that all countries which remain in certain structural relationships are going through certain "crises".
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